Thou Shalt Not Make Graven Images

You shall not make for yourself an image in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments.

The second commandment overlaps the first quite a bit, so much so that in some faith traditions the two are combined. While the first commandment is concerned with putting God first, the second specifically deals with symbols for the kind of things that might be given priority over God. Depending on the translation, these may be called “idols”, “carved images”, “likenesses”, or “statues”, and the categories used to describe these were quite broad. Most scholars believe that it was not images per se that were forbidden, but the worship of those images. However,  there are some Biblical literalists who disagree. The Protestant reformers  in Tudor England went about destroying religious works of art quite zealously. and there are many other examples of iconoclasm throughout history. An internet search on the phrase “graven images” will show you that there are people who hold to that line of thought today. One site I visited even suggested that allowing children to play with stuffed animals was a violation of this commandment, and might create an opening for demonic attack. (Cue theme from “The Exorcist.”)

Since I am not a literalist, I tend to agree with the idea that it is not the “likenesses” themselves that are a problem, but idolatry, or prioritizing anything above God. God is not particularly concerned with the family pictures or artwork I display on my walls, or my Instagram pictures of cats, but God is concerned that I have the right priorities. Anything that is given priority over God’s prime directive of love can become an idol. It is not things themselves that are bad, but the wrong use of things, and even good things can become idols. Each one of the “seven deadly sins” can be seen as idolatry: the result of taking something good and elevating it to a bad extreme. And symbols which might have represented one thing at one time can come to represent something entirely different at another time. When the created symbol becomes more important than the reason it was created, bad consequences are sure to follow.

There’s a story in Numbers about a bronze snake that God commands Moses to make intended to be an instrument of divine healing. Many years later, the writer of the book of Kings commends Hezekiah for destroying it   because it had become an object of worship.. It seems to me that the meaning of the symbol had changed over the years. Where once it was used by God as an instrument of healing, it came to mean something different in Hezekiah’s time. Perhaps they still saw it as a source of healing, but one that was under their control instead of God’s. Burn a pinch of incense, say the right words, and you would be healed. God has become a peripheral part of the equation, subject to the magical properties of the symbol. The story reminds me of the proliferation of relics in the medieval Catholic church, which were often viewed as having magical healing properties.

When I think of the de-evolution of the bronze snake into an idol, I can’t help but think of the quasi-idolatry demonstrated by some in connection with the American flag, the Pledge of Allegiance, and the National Anthem. As I understand it, the flag and the Pledge of Allegiance were meant to be symbols of the freedom and unity enshrined in our Constitution.”One nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all”. The brouhahas over standing vs sitting vs kneeling when the National Anthem is sung have eclipsed the original meaning of these symbols; it seems the symbols have become more important than the reasons they were created. If the flag “still stands for freedom, and they can’t take that away” why shouldn’t a person have the liberty to stand or sit or kneel as they choose? I suppose freedom also means a person attending a sporting event has the right to drink beer, talk to neighbors in the stands, or peruse a smartphone during the national anthem, although I personally wouldn’t opt to do those things. As I understand it, those who choose to kneel are doing it because they do believe in freedom, liberty, and justice for all, and love America enough to want to see those ideals more fully realized. And I’m really not sure how the idea that not standing is meant to convey a lack of support for those serving our country in the military got into this equation at all. Just as the Israelites forgot the original purpose of the bronze snake, I’m afraid that the meaning of the flag as a symbol of freedom and equality has become distorted into something different. Unity in conformity has replaced unity in diversity.

And while I’m busily alienating those who don’t agree with me about this, I don’t think national flags belong in churches, either, especially not front and center on the platform, and certainly not as the focal point of a worship service. I’m all for celebrating Fourth of July with flags and parades and fireworks and patriotic songs, but to me those patriotic displays belong in a secular setting, not in a church. I’m pretty uncomfortable when love for God is conflated with love for country. As a Christian, my primary allegiance is to God and the kingdom of God, which transcends all national boundaries. As the writer of Revelation envisioned heaven  “After this I looked, and there before me was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and before the Lamb. They were wearing white robes and were holding palm branches in their hands. And they cried out in a loud voice:“Salvation belongs to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb.”  I really am concerned that, for some people, the American flag has become an idol, one which is elevated in practice if not in name above God. And of course, this is only one example of a misused symbol.

“Thou shalt not make any graven images”. I’m afraid the human race hasn’t outgrown the siren song of idolatry. And as Moses warned, when we listen to it we endanger not only ourselves, but our children and our children’s children and our children’s children’s children.



Revelation:To Hell with Hell

“Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last, and the living one. I was dead, and see, I am alive forever and ever; and I have the keys of Death and of Hades”

“Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire”

I began this year’s adventure in blogging through the Bible with the idea of “wrestling with God”. In a way, that has been the story of my spiritual journey my whole life. I’ve never been satisfied with a second-hand faith, with believing whatever others tell me without question, and never asking “why”. I want more out of my relationship with God; I want to “see him more clearly, love him more dearly, follow him more nearly” day by day. That isn’t easy. There are always folks who want to tell you that if you step outside the boundary lines of what you’ve always been told, you are on a slippery slope to hell, with one foot on a banana peel. Maybe that’s where I am. All I can say with any surety is that “I know in whom I have believed, and am committed that he is able, to keep that which I’ve committed, unto him against that day.”

Revelation is an enigmatic book, one that I think lends itself to multiple interpretations and layers of meaning. One of my strongest memories of what I think of as my transition to adult faith (but which others think was the beginning of my slide into heresy) was a bible study I attended at the BSU during my senior year in college. For the first time, I heard that there might be different ways to understand and interpret Revelation. I was intrigued, but the friend who accompanied me was horrified. (See Wikipedia article here, which I think gives a pretty good idea of the diversity of opinion regarding it)  The best approach I’ve found to Revelation is to think of it like dream imagery: full of symbols that are meaningful, but not necessarily literal. I don’t see it as some kind of time-machine window into the future,  but as a symbolic rendering of truth: God will write the final chapter. No matter how bad things seem to be going in the battle between Team Love and Team Hate, in the end the good guys will win. The wrong will fail, the right prevail, and God himself will put right everything that once went wrong

When John had his visions on the isle of Patmos, Christians were under terrible persecution, probably under Domitian, who was heavily invested in making Rome great again by forcing a return to its traditions (pagan) values..The faith was also under siege from within, in the form of variations of Gnostic teaching including the Nicolatians mentioned in the warning to the churches in Ephesus and Pergamum. Jesus had not returned as soon as expected, and the eyewitnesses to his life, death, and resurrection were fast dying out. Had they been mistaken in their faith? What was going to happen to them?  John’s visions as recorded in the book of Revelation would have been a great source of comfort and reassurance to them, as well as an exhortation to not give up. John tries to put his vision of worship in heaven into words  (I like the musical interpretation of these chapters here) and follows that up with many chapters detailing how their oppressors are going to get what’s coming to them. Babylon, which would most likely be understood by John’s readers as code for Rome, would fall, and party time in heaven would commence. Evil would finally be defeated, once and forever, and all God’s people would live happily ever after. “See, the home of God is among mortals.He will dwell with them; they will be his peoples, and God himself will be with them; he will wipe every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; mourning and crying and pain will be no more,for the first things have passed away.”

What intrigues me most on this year’s read-through of Revelation is the idea that hell itself, along with death and assorted bad characters, will be thrown into the lake of fire. If hell is the “eternal conscious torment” popularized by Dante and Jonathan Edwards, how can hell be thrown into hell? Or is the “lake of fire” a metaphor, one that  “spells the end of sin and wrong?”  There have been quite a few very serious Biblical scholars over many centuries who have come to quite different conclusions about what hell is, who goes there, and how long they might be there. This includes some from very early in the first centuries of the church, before the split between the Roman and Eastern Orthodox churches. A few years ago, Rob Bell got into quite a bit of trouble for his book “Love Wins”, which I didn’t find too terribly different from C.S. Lewis’s “The Great Divorce”. Richard Rohr, along with a number of others, seems to following the same line of thought.

Revelation assures us that it is Jesus who has the keys to death and hell, so it is Jesus who will make the final call. I think of the parables Jesus told of the lost sheep, the lost coin, and the lost son, and I can’t help but hope that God’s love will indeed win, and that hell, now vacant, will finally be thrown into hell and destroyed. And that would be very good news indeed!